Gender Stratification: Crash Course Sociology #32

Gender Stratification: Crash Course Sociology #32


Why do some people think that
drinking black coffee is manly, while ordering
a pumpkin spice latte is “girly?” Don’t let them fool you. Pumpkin spice has no gender.
Pumpkin spice is for everyone. The gendering of inanimate objects is a
super-common practice, and it’s a good example of how societies
create markers of gender that have nothing
to do with anything biological. Gender, as you’ll recall, refers to the personal
and social characteristics – but not the biological
traits – that we associate with different sexes. That’s why sociologists say that gender
is a social construct, something that we as
a society create and enforce. Now, those social constructs may be totally
made up, but their effects on how we interact
with each other are very real. Indeed, gender influences how we organize
all of society, and how we distribute power. Trust me: the identity-politics of your morning
coffee are only the beginning. [Theme Music] When I say that gender affects the organization
of society and the distribution of power, what I mean is that our society is largely
stratified by gender. Gender stratification refers to the unequal
distribution of wealth, power, and privilege
across genders. Take, for example, the right to vote. Denying women the vote has been one way
that many societies have kept political power
in the hands of men. It was less than a century ago, in 1920, that
women in the United States gained the right to vote. Saudi Arabia didn’t allow women to vote
until the 2015 election. This kind of disenfranchisement is an example
of patriarchy at work. Patriarchy is a form of social organization
in which men have more power and dominate
other genders. Matriarchal, or female dominated, societies
exist, too. But most societies throughout human history
have been patriarchies. And patriarchal societies are maintained through a
careful cultivation of attitudes, behaviors, and systems that favor men and encourage society to believe
that one gender is innately better than others. Also known as sexism. For example, little girls may sometimes be
encouraged to be tomboys. But young boys are often shamed for liking
toys that are considered stereotypically feminine,
or even, say, the color pink. Societies often define, and celebrate, certain
sets of characteristics as being masculine. Sociologist Raewyn Connell describes this
process as ‘hegemonic masculinity’. Think of the type of guy who’s the lead
of every action movie – tall, broad shouldered, strong, able-bodied,
heterosexual, usually wealthy… probably named Chris –
that’s hegemonic masculinity. But it goes beyond mere appearance. Hegemonic masculinities are linked to power
within society, too. Fitting into the archetype of masculinity
pays off in the form of societal approval. But ultimately, in a patriarchal society,
all men share in patriarchal dividends. This is a fancy way of saying that there are
benefits that accrue to men simply because
they are men. But before we get too deep into what those benefits
are, let’s take a step back and look at how different
gender expectations are taught in our society. As you might remember from our episode on
socialization, the first people who teach us about
gender are our parents. If daughters are given dolls to play with and sons are
given toy hammers, kids learn that caring behaviors are
feminine and building things is masculine. This type of anticipatory socialization is reinforced by the societal assumption that men are the breadwinners in families and women will take care of the home and children. Even as more women have become equal
earners outside the home, they still tend to do
more work in the household as well. Sociologist Arlie Hochschild called this
phenomenon the ‘second shift’, in which women
come home from work to more work – cooking, laundry, childcare – whereas men are
more likely to spend their time in leisure after work. According to a survey on time use from the
Bureau of Labor Statistics in 2015, full time working moms spend about 9 more hours
per week on household chores and caring for family
members than full time working dads. These gender dynamics are helped along by
corporate and governmental policies that set
aside parental leave only for women. And by less formal influences, too, like commercials
or TV shows that depict fathers who can’t do the
laundry or take care of their own kids for a weekend. The media play a big part in teaching kids
about gendered ideals. Unfortunately, their depictions of what the
typical woman or man looks like tend to be
a bit skewed. Women in particular are exposed to messages that
encourage them to value youth, beauty, and thinness. These media messages – which
encourage women to be desirable to men – contribute to what Raewyn Connell has
referred to as emphasized femininities. This is the flip side of the hegemonic masculinities. Emphasized femininities are forms of femininity
that conform to what the ideal female is in men’s eyes. The social reality is that femininities come in many
different forms and may or may not be constructed in
ways that emphasize stereotypical notions of gender. But media are only one source of gender socialization. The gender constructions that kids see outside
of the home also tend to reinforce the dynamic of
women in caring roles and men in leadership roles. Take school, for example. While three-quarters of K through 12 teachers
are women, about half of school principals and
only 14% of school superintendents are women. Female principals are more likely to work in
elementary schools, which is less likely to lead to
promotions to higher positions in the district. And who you see at the front of the
classroom isn’t the only way that schools
influence gender socialization. Let’s go to the Thought Bubble to talk about how sports
ended up as part of the landmark United States law
about gender discrimination in schools: Title IX. Passed in 1972, Title IX is a law that prohibits
discrimination on the basis of sex in public schools. It was originally developed in response to discrimination
in higher education, such as enrollment quotas, or
refusing to hire female academics with children. But the law became most well-known for its
effects on sports. Prior to 1970, most schools only had official
teams for boys – and if a girl wanted to join the team,
she could be turned away without question. As a result, only about 4% of girls played
sports. By tying schools’ funding to equal opportunities for
boys and girls, Title IX required that schools offer girls
just as many opportunities to play sports as boys. This increased the number of high school girls
playing sports from 295,000 in 1970 to over
3 million nowadays. But more importantly, it also forced colleges
to increase their funding for female sports
scholarships, which was one of the factors in the increase
in women pursuing higher education. One person for whom it made difference? Sally Ride. Thanks to Title IX, she was able to get a
tennis scholarship to college – which led to her studying physics and eventually becoming America’s first female astronaut. Thanks Thought Bubble. Since the 1970s, the number of women pursuing
higher education has skyrocketed, with women now
making up the majority of all college graduates. But different majors attract different genders,
with men being heavily represented in fields like
computer science, economics, and engineering, while women are more likely to cluster in
biology, psychology, or sociology. Moving past education, the jobs that women
work tend to be in service or care positions, such as food service, education, health care,
and administrative roles. Sometimes known as “pink collar jobs”, these
jobs with the highest concentrations of women tend
to come with both lower prestige and lower pay. You’ve probably also heard of the glass ceiling: a term used by sociologists to describe the
invisible barrier that stops women’s advancement
to the top levels of an organization. Women are particularly underrepresented in
leadership positions across all major institutions. Of the Fortune 500 companies, only 32 CEOs
are women. In politics, only 19% of the US House of Representatives
and 21% of the US Senate are female. The US has never had a female president
or vice president and did not have its first
female supreme court justice until 1981. Why does the glass ceiling persist? While the US and many other countries have
laws in place to prevent explicit discrimination
on the basis of sex and gender, women are often held back through less
explicit kinds of sexism. For example, men who are assertive in
salary negotiations are more successful in
getting a higher salary, but women who do the same tend to be
seen negatively. Which is a Catch 22 for women – do you
negotiate and get labelled as too aggressive
or do you settle for lower pay? One of the results of gender stratification
is gender wage gap. According to a survey done in 2016 by the
Pew Research Center, white women earn about
80 cents for every dollar that white men make. This gap is wider for non-white women, with
Black women earning 65 cents and Hispanic women
earning 58 cents for every dollar that white men make. Now, there’s a lot to unpack from the gender
pay gap. That 20 cent gap isn’t all due to gender
discrimination. Much of it can be explained by differences
in education, choices of careers, differences in
the hours worked, and differences in experience. But those last two factors – hours worked
and career experience – are often related to the decision to leave the
workforce to care for children, which is way more
normative for women than for men. So, some people argue that, if we can explain
the gender gap by looking at people’s choices, then it must the people alone who are responsible
for the gap being there. But the fact is, society has a tremendous influence
on what choices people make, as well as what type of
person is considered the right “fit” for a given job. Yes, the gender gap is smaller if you compare
female CEOs with 30 years of work experience to
male CEOS with 30 years of work experience. But, there are fewer women who are offered
those positions. Gender socialization is also part of why
women might choose to opt out of the workforce,
to care for children. And society also informs the educational choices
that women and men make that contribute to the gap. For example, until the 1980s, the number of women
who majored in computer science was increasing at a
pace similar to other fields, like medicine. But around 1985, that rate began to drop, roughly around the time that personal computers and video games came on the market and were marketed as gadgets for boys and men. Gendered marketing strikes again! And patriarchal norms about masculinities
can affect men as well as women. For example, men have higher rates of suicide
than women. Studies of suicide among men have found that
it’s often linked to financial troubles or divorce, two crises of masculinity that may be
related to men’s identity as a breadwinner. Men are also more likely to be incarcerated. They’re more likely to engage in criminal
behavior, yes, but holding all else equal, men are more likely to be tried for a crime
and more likely to be found guilty. This stems from the stereotype that
women are more moral and innocent, an example of benevolent sexism that makes
women less likely to be seen as criminal types. But benevolent or not, sexism and the
patriarchy have real impacts that make it harder
for all genders to be on even footing in our society. Today we learned about some of those impacts,
starting with discussing patriarchy and sexism
and Raewyn Connell’s concept of hegemonic
masculinities and emphasized femininities. Then, we discussed gender socialization in
the home, media, and schools. Finally, we talked about how gender stratification
results in different outcomes by gender in education,
occupations, earnings, and criminal activity. Crash Course Sociology is filmed in the Dr.
Cheryl C. Kinney Studio in Missoula, MT, and
it’s made with the help of all of these
nice people. Our animation team is Thought Cafe and Crash
Course is made with Adobe Creative Cloud. If you’d like to keep Crash Course free for
everyone, forever, you can support the series
at Patreon, a crowdfunding platform that allows
you to support the content you love. Thank you to all of our patrons for making
Crash Course possible with their continued
support.

83 thoughts on “Gender Stratification: Crash Course Sociology #32

  1. You should’ve been my college teacher!! Thank you so much ma’am, I love the way you explain things without boring anyone!
    My exam is day after tomorrow!

  2. Gender just seems like a longer way of saying everyone’s different and that they need to be seen that way

  3. Testosterone levels determine the amount of bitter taste you can handle so men can drink coffee black while women find black coffee u pleasant. Stop with the psuedoscience ✋🏻

  4. Psychology research shows boys like things and girls like people. This comes from differences in the brain at an early age. Kids themselves will tend to gravitate to stereotypical toys. Stop the pseudoscience ✋🏻

  5. So if gender is a social construct, and the masculine gender has guaranteed benefits in every society in history, then isn’t the best advice to be masculine, or am I missing something?

  6. I'm actually surprised by how non-biased this is and it's actually fairly convincing, however, Jordan Peterson's rebuttal using the highly egalitarian Scandinavian nations as an example is hard to refute.

  7. Go watch Jordan Peterson for an unbiased source of information. This channel is slightly slanted towards 3rd wave feminism

  8. Distinctions between people are not, ipso facto, proof of violence or injustice.
    Some inequality is the result of systemic injustice, but it doesn't have to be.

  9. That same Labor of Bureau Statistics also found that while women were spending an additional 55 minutes daily on household & childcare related in-home work, men were spending an additional 52 minutes working outside of work. So while there is an imbalance it does seem to be a consistent measure of cooperation between couples in maintaining a home and family.

    Funny how that extra work hour is always overlooked… same government agency reported it, you think it would be included in your facts.

  10. The message in this video is somewhat one-sided. So anytime we can observe differences in society between men and women these differences are due to underlying oppressive societal structures? Is it not even possible that biology plays a role in gender differences concerning aggression and agreeableness?

  11. she talks fast, to the point and makes balanced arguments on such a controversial topic. I like her. Also, she is hot.

  12. I am Native, grew up with single mom, 5 sisters and a DEEP ABIDING RESPECT fer ALL WOMEN…….."This World will NOT KNOW PEACE until ALL women are CHERISHED and RESPECTED equally the world round in the HOME, WORK/BUSINESS and POLITICS"…….
    SRI KARUNAMAYI

  13. it may have to do with indulgence vs stoicism in expectations of behavior….. definitely worth more studies….

  14. I dislike the comments that gender has nothing to do with anything biological. It distorts the fact that the brain where gender derives from is biological. There are both sociological and biological factors among others which contribute to gender.

  15. Black Coffee is considered masculine because the majority of straight black coffee drinkers are men. How many times have you heard a girl or even a grown woman order a straight black coffee at starbucks? Not often.

    Pumpkin Spice lattes are considered feminine because the vast majority of people who order pumpkin spice lattes are girls and women.

    This doesn't mean no women drink black coffee and no men drink pumpkin spice. But if you sat at starbucks and took count of the genders of the people who ordered these drinks, more females will order pumpkin spice lattes and more males will order straight black coffee.

    Also, the gender wage gap is a myth and you know it and everyone knows it. 80 cents for every dollar huh? Gee, like two years ago it was 60 cents for every dollar. You can't keep your lies straight.

  16. I love the men in the comments saying that men suffer from being insulted for doing historically feminine things like yes sweetie the sexism male-lead societies created sometimes negatively affects you too

  17. I have seen at least 10 of your videos throughout my Sociology class. Is there any solutions or proposals ever given on how to fix these issues? Just data, but no solutions….

  18. Gender is linguistic and therefore ideological (according to Simone de Bouvier, 1948). Sex is biological (according to most evolutionary biologists). Problems occur when sex and gender are conflated.

  19. Gender and sex are synonym words, so they both mean the same thing. Biology. Good ol, unchangeable biology. Biologically there are 2 sexes which can't be changed. Your sex is decided by your chromosomes. If you have female chromosomes in all of your body, your female, same thing with male. These cannot be changed, even with a surgery, because all your future cells will continue to grow as male or female. These rules apply to gender. Ok, now the Important part. People who are suicidal because they don't want to be the gender they are, is a mental condition called gender disphoria. They get the surgery, they pretend to be one of the other, yet they are still suicidal. The reason is the gender disphoria, which causes suicidal thoughts or actions, all while confusing people. Others think the cure is acceptance, and so they start fighting for them, instead of giving them the help they need. They also try to embrace this, making up genders and even joining in. This is very bad. You are denying the facts that people are being hurt, and causing even more gender disphoria. Next, women and men are biologically and evolutionarily different. So they should act and accept that. Women still do deserve rights, and they also can do whatever they want, but I think people should stop acting like there is no difference at all, and sex isn't a real thing.

  20. if gender was JUST a social construct we wouldn't have transgenders because they would just be comfortable with whichever gender they were assigned as at birth! OPEN YOUR MF EYES.

  21. I really love crash course and I've only seen her in a few videos but I already like her… that said, just– as someone who often needs closed captioning– her hand gestures are distracting around the words I'm trying to read (positioned smack in the realm of her expression, haha). CC, if you see this, thanks for HAVING closed captioning in the first place, but please consider. Thanks.

  22. People use gender as a way to class their own personality for some reason
    While saying they don’t like labels
    Lol
    No matriarchal society went beyond the Stone Age
    And biology has to be thrown out
    And
    And
    And

  23. Genders are not equal. That's why there are genders. There are some jobs more suitable for men and some more suitable for women, which does not mean gender discrimination. Anyone who insists absolute gender equality is a gender communist which would bring disasters.

  24. I love your videos and how well you explain all, but is there a way you can pause or speak slower. I feel that your videos go too fast and it makes my head swell up, specially when you are transitioning from thing to another.

  25. Woman didnt want the right to vote and it was men who gave women that right.
    She doesnt take into account that because men take economics and women take care taking, obviously there be more men in politics.

  26. This episode was simply awful and an example of why sociology has a bad name. The framing of these ideas was mindbogglingly jaundiced. There are so some very, very interesting issues here and I would like to have seen them analysed objectively. Ideologically affected analyses are not science; what I heard here what mostly superficial and contentious dogma. This is such a shame considering the powerful tools sociology has at its disposal.

    Your series and presenter are in general excellent, until you get onto issues relating to gender. This topic is your and sociology's Achilles heel.

  27. It's called competence and men in general are more competent in some disciplines and women are generally more competent in others. The rest is psychobabble created by the gender ideologues to create a false narrative based on a bastardized version of Marxist Conflict theory.
    Connell is a transgender that doesn't understand either masculinity or femininity and is neither nor.

  28. Yeah, gendering object is meaningless unless its male/female.

    Pink and blue were random choices of colors…Germany 1945…chosen by a woman for the ease of identifying.

    Scientist figured out ages ago that people primarily prefer shades of red secondarily, people prefer shades of blue.

    Men do not prefer the color baby blue that they're SOMETIMES swaddled in at birth; nor do women prefer pink.

    Everybody knows it except you.

    Women artists don't just paint in pinks; men don't paint only in blues…Oh wait…Picasso…but that was a different thing.

    Pumpkin lattes…I owned a coffee shop. Pumpkin lattes we're as popular amongst men and women as pumpkin pie…in the Fall. That was 25 years ago.

    You speak nonsense.

  29. In India there is a strict delineation between how males and females
    should behave in society. Females are expected to speak slowly in lower
    voice, let males speak for them and over them, give up jobs to move to
    husband's house or if asked leave their job, look after in laws (
    ranging from making all meals for them, their health, any and every
    assistance in their daily life). This is femininity in Indian culture
    which is definitely a societal construct. Don't ask me what happens to
    the females who do not follow these rules, it's dark.

    The social workers face a serious resistance from conservatives (some
    are even killed) because it is regarded as demeaning Indian culture and
    tradition (while anyone with a sane mind can understand the reason). The
    logic that men go out for work and women are expected to stay at home
    is the major reason of being women making upto 33% of workforce but
    major cases involve women working as house help/ maid in neighborhood to
    earn money for household while men not doing any job, sleeping at
    liquor shops, robbing off hard-earne money from their wives/children for
    their liquor, followed by child abuse, domestic violence and rapes. A
    large number of men, looking like ants, stand outside a wine shop “run
    by government” while poor women stand in a long line to fill up water
    for household from a public water tap.
    Here you can clearly see the femininity and masculinity about which the
    YouTube commenters are salty about.

  30. I really dislike when these videos consider themselves objective while the majority of their points are based on how women are treated unfairly and not based on actual research or facts

  31. Did she suggest that the reason women are underrepresented in computer science fields is because personal computers and video games were marketed as gadgets for men back in the 1980s?

  32. The amount of gender dysphoria is alarming. Your gender comes from biology (yes, there is a social influence, but you can't ignore the biology of the brain and hormonal differences that shape the brain). To suggest that gender is merely a social construct and exists outside the context of biology demonstrates a complete ignorance to well established sex differences that start in the womb. The amount of prenatal testosterone a fetus is exposed to has a huge impact on the development of the brain and gender differences.

    Kids mindlessly regurgitating slogans like "gender is a social construct" are literally being indoctrinated and misled from what thousands of studies have already proven to be true: there are differences between men and women.

  33. You are an enforcer of dictatorship saying Saudi Arabia allows voting for woman. There is no democracy there you fool. Long live the free Muslims of Arabia down with the system.

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